Информация предназначена только для профессионалов в области здравоохранения.
Вы можете зайти как пользователь социальных сетей
Desert Pacific Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Semel Institute for Neuroscience at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2 Department of Psychiatry, University of Naples SUN, Naples, Italy
Список исп. литературыСкрыть список
1. Haslam J. Observations onmadness and melancholy. London: Callow, 1809.
2. Jackson JH. On temporary mental disorders after epileptic paroxysms. West Riding Lunatic Asylum Med Rep 1885;5:105-29.
3. Kraepelin E. Dementia praecox and paraphrenia. New York: Huntington, 1919.
4. Bleuler E. Dementia praecox, or the group of schizophrenias. New York: International Universities Press, 1950.
5. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT Jr, Bartko JJ.The diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia. Part III. Speculations on the processes that underlie schizophrenic symptoms and signs.Schizophr Bull 1974;11:61-9.
6. Crow TJ. Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process? BMJ 1980;280:66-8.
7. Andreasen NC, Olsen S. Negative v positive schizophrenia. Definition and validation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:789-94.
8. Johnstone EC, Owen DG, Frith CD et al. The relative stability of positive and negative features in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1987;150:60-4.
9. McGlashan TH, Fenton WS. The positive-negative distinction in schizophrenia: review of natural history validators. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:63-72.
10. Arndt S, Andreasen NC, Flaum M et al. A longitudinal study of symptoms dimensions in schizophrenia: prediction and patterns of changes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52:352-60.
11. Pogue-Geile MF, Harrow M. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: their longitudinal course and prognostic importance. Schizophr Bull 1985;11:427-39.
12. Liddle PF, Barnes TRE. Syndromes of chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1990;157:558-61.
13. Peralta V, de Leon J, Cuesta MJ. Are there more than two syndromes in schizophrenia? A critique of the positive-negative dichotomy. Br J Psychiatry 1992;161:335-43.
14. Carpenter WT Jr, Heinrichs DW, Wagman AM. Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:578-83.
15. Kirkpatrick B, Galderisi S. Deficit schizophrenia: an update. World Psychiatry 2008;7:143-7.
16. Fenton WS, McGlashan TH. Antecedents, symptom progression, and long-term outcome of the deficit syndrome in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:351-6.
17. Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, Ross DE et al. A separate disease within the syndrome of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:165-71.
18. Galderisi S, Maj M, MucciA et al. Historical, psychopathological, neurological, and neuropsychological aspects of deficit schizophrenia: a multicenter study. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:983-90.
19. Galderisi S, Mucci A, Bitter I et al. Persistent negative symptoms in first episode patients with schizophrenia: results from the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial. EurNeuropsychopharmacol 2013;23:196-204.
20. Mucci A, Galderisi S, Kirkpatrick B et al. Double dissociation of N1 and P3 abnormalities in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2007;92:252-61.
21. Galderisi S, Maj M. Deficit schizophrenia: an overview of clinical, biological and treatment aspects. Eur Psychiatry 2009;24:493-500.
22. Bowie CR, Leung WW, ReichenbergA et al. Predicting schizophrenia patients’ real-world behavior with specific neuropsychological and functional capacity measures. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63:505-11.
23. Couture SM, Granholm EL, Fish SC. A path model investigation of neurocognition, theory of mind, social competence, negative symptoms and real-world functioning in schizophrenia.Schizophr Res 2011;125:152-60.
24. Fervaha G, Foussias G, Agid O et al. Amotivation and functional outcomes in early schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2013;210:665-8.
25. Fervaha G, Foussias G, Agid O et al. Impact of primary negative symptoms on functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry 2014;29:449-55.
26. Fervaha G, Foussias G, Agid O et al. Motivational deficits in early schizophrenia: prevalent, persistent, and key determinants of functional outcome. Schizophr Res 2015;166:9-16.
27. Foussias G, Agid O, Fervaha G et al. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: clinical features, relevance to real world functioning and specificity versus other CNS disorders. EurNeuropsychopharmacol 2014;24:693-709.
28. Galderisi S, Bucci P, MucciA et al. Categorical and dimensional approaches to negative symptoms of schizophrenia: focus on long-term stability and functional outcome. Schizophr Res 2013;147:157-62.
29. Galderisi S, Rossi A, Rocca P et al. The influence of illness-related variables, personal resources and context-related factors on real-life functioning of people with schizophrenia. World Psychiatry 2014;13:275-87.
30. Harvey PD, Strassnig M. Predicting the severity of everyday functional disability in people with schizophrenia: cognitive deficits, functional capacity, symptoms, and health status. World Psychiatry 2012;11:73-9.
31. Davis MC, Horan WP, Marder SR. Psychopharmacology of the negative symptoms: current status and prospects for progress. EurNeuropsychopharmacol 2014;24:788-99.
32. Goff DC. D-cycloserine in schizophrenia: new strategies for improving clinical outcomes by enhancing plasticity. CurrNeuropharmacol (in press).
33. Garay RP, Citrome L, Samalin L et al. Therapeutic improvements expected in the near future for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an appraisal of phase III clinical trials of schizophrenia-targeted therapies as found in US and EUclinical trial registries. Expert OpinPharmacother 2016;19:1-16.
34. Grant PM, Huh GA, Perivoliotis D et al. Randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive therapy for low-functioning patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012;69:121-7.
35. Javitt DC. Current and emergent treatments for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia.Curr Treat Options Psychiatry 2015;1:107-20.
36. Buchanan RW, Carpenter WT. Domains of psychopathology: an approach to the reduction of heterogeneity in schizophrenia. J NervMent Dis 1994;182:193-204.
37. Kelley ME, van Kammen DP, Allen DN. Empirical validation of primary negative symptoms: independence from effects of medication and psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:406-11.
38. Horan WP, KringAM, Blanchard JJ. Anhedonia in schizophrenia: a review of assessment strategies. Schizophr Bull 2006;32:259-73.
39. Andreasen NC. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Iowa City: University of Iowa, 1984.
40. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13:261-76.
41. Kay SR, Sevy S. Pyramidical model of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1990; 16:537-45.
42. Overall JE, Gorham DR. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.Psychol Rep 1962;10:799-812.
43. Blanchard JJ, Cohen AS. The structure of negative symptoms within schizophrenia: implications for assessment. Schizophr Bull 2006;32:238-45.
44. Kirkpatrick B, Fenton WS, Carpenter WT Jr et al. The NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement on negative symptoms.Schizophr Bull 2006;32:214-9.
45. Horan WP, Kring AM, Gur RE et al. Development and psychometric validation of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Schizophr Res 2011;132:140-5.
46. Kring AM, Gur RE, Blanchard JJ et al. The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): final development and validation. Am J Psychiatry 2013;170:165-72.
47. Damasio AR, Grabowski TJ, BecharaA et al. Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self-generated emotions. Nat Neurosci 2000; 3:1049-56.
48. Henry JD, Green MJ, De Lucia A et al. Emotion dysregulation in schizophrenia: reduced amplification of emotional expression is associated with emotional blunting. Schizophr Res 2007;95:197-204.
49. Kirkpatrick B. Progress in the study of negative symptoms. Schizophr Bull 2014;40(Suppl. 2):S101-6.
50. Kirkpatrick B, Strauss GP, Nguyen L et al. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale: psychometric properties. Schizophr Bull 2011;37:
51. Ekman P, Friesen WV. Measuring facial movement. Environ Psychol Nonverbal Behav 1976;1:56-75.
52. Ekman P, Friesen WV. Facial Action Coding System: investigator’s guide. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1978.
53. Kring AM, Sloan DM. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): development, validation, and utility. Psychol Assess 2007;19:210-24.
54. Kring AM, Moran EK. Emotional response deficits in schizophrenia: insights from affective science. Schizophr Bull 2008;34:819-34.
55. Kring AM, Earnst KS. Nonverbal behavior in schizophrenia. In: Philippot P, Coats E, Feldman RS (eds). Nonverbal behavior in clinical settings. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003:263-85.
56. Kring AM, Kerr SL, Earnst KS. Schizophrenic patients show facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Psychophysiology 1999;36:186-92.
57. Wolf K, Mass R, Kiefer F et al. The influences of olanzapine on facial expression of emotions in schizophrenia – an improved facial EMG study. German J Psychiatry 2004;7:14-9.
58. Wolf K, Mass R, Kiefer F et al. Characterization of the facial expression of emotions in schizophrenia patients: preliminary findings with a new electromyography method. Can J Psychiatry 2006;51:335-41.
59. Healey KM, Pinkham AE, Richard JA et al. Do we recognize facial expressions of emotions from persons with schizophrenia? Schizophr Res 2010;122:144-50.
60. Tremeau F. A review of emotion deficits in schizophrenia. Dialogues ClinNeurosci 2006;8:59-70.
61. Cohen AS, McGovern JE, Dinzeo TJ et al. Speech deficits in serious mental illness: a cognitive resource issue? Schizophr Res 2014;160:173-9.
62. Brüne M, Sonntag C, Abdel-Hamid M et al. Nonverbal behavior during standardized interviews in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. J NervMent Dis 2008;196:282-8.
63. Kupper Z, Ramseyer F, Hoffmann H et al. Video-based quantification of body movement during social interaction indicates the severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2010;121:90-100.
64. Lavelle M, Healey PG, McCabe R. Is nonverbal communication disrupted in interactions involving patients with schizophrenia? Schizophr Bull 2013;39:1150-8.
65. Aghevli MA, Blanchard JJ, Horan WP. The expression and experience of emotion in schizophrenia: a study of social interactions. Psychiatry Res 2003;119:261-70.
66. Kring AM, Earnst KS. Stability of emotional responding in schizophrenia.BehavTher 1999;30:373-88.
67. Kring AM, Neale JM. Do schizophrenic patients show a disjunctive relationship among expressive, experiential, and psychophysiological components of emotion? J AbnormPsychol 1996;105:249-57.
68. Gur RE, Kohler CG, Ragland JD et al. Flat affect in schizophrenia: relation to emotion processing and neurocognitive measures. Schizophr Bull 2006;32:279-87.
69. Lepage M, Sergerie K, Benoit A et al. Emotional face processing and flat affect in schizophrenia: functional and structural neural correlates. Psychol Med 2011;41:1833-44.
70. Strauss GP, Horan WP, Kirkpatrick B et al. Deconstructing negative symptoms of schizophrenia: avolition-apathy and diminished expression clusters predict clinical presentation and functional outcome. J Psychiatr Res 2013;47:783-90.
71. Alpert M, Rosenberg SD, Pouget ER et al. Prosody and lexical accuracy in flat affect schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2000;97:107-18.
72. Walther S, Stegmayer K, Sulzbacher J et al. Nonverbal social communication and gesture control in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2015;41:338-45.
73. Cohen AS, Mitchell KR, Elveva ˚g B. What do we really know about blunted vocal affect and alogia? A meta-analysis of objective assessments.Schizophr Res 2014;159:533-8.
74. Stolar N, Berenbaum H, Banich MT et al. Neuropsychological correlates of alogia and affective flattening in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1994;35:164-72.
75. Joyce EM, Collinson SL, Crichton P. Verbal fluency in schizophrenia: relationship with executive function, semantic memory and clinical alogia. Psychol Med 1996;26:39-49.
76. Bowie CR, Harvey PD, Moriarty PJ et al. A comprehensive analysis of verbal fluency deficit in geriatric schizophrenia. Arch ClinNeuropsychol 2004;19:289-303.
77. Berenbaum H, Kerns JG, Vernon LL et al. Cognitive correlates of schizophrenia signs and symptoms: I. Verbal communication disturbances. Psychiatry Res 2008;159:147-56.
78. Fervaha G, Takeuchi H, Foussias G et al. Using poverty of speech as a case study to explore the overlap between negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Schizophr Res 2016;176:411-6.
79. Docherty AR, Berenbaum H, Kerns JG. Alogia and formal thought disorder: differential patterns of verbal fluency task performance. J Psychiatr Res 2011;45:1352-7.
80. Rohrer D, Wixted JT, Salmon DP et al. Retrieval from semantic memory and its implications for Alzheimer’s disease. J ExpPsychol Learn MemCogn 1995;21:1127-39.
81. Unsworth N, Engle RW. The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity: active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory. Psychol Rev 2007;114:104-32.
82. Badre D, Wagner AD. Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the cognitive control of memory.Neuropsychologia 2007;45:2883-901.
83. Cohen AS, Morrison SC, Brown LA et al. Towards a cognitive resource limitations model of diminished expression in schizotypy. J AbnormPsychol 2012;121:109-18.
84. Sumiyoshi C, Sumiyoshi T, Nohara S et al. Disorganization of semantic memory underlies alogia in schizophrenia: an analysis of verbal fluency performance in Japanese subjects. Schizophr Res 2005;74:91-100.
85. Hartmann-Riemer MN, Hager OM, Kirschner M et al. The association of neurocognitive impairment with diminished expression and apathy in schizophrenia.Schizophr Res 2015;169:427-32.
86. Meehl PE. Hedonic capacity: some conjectures. Bull Menninger Clin 1975;39:295-307.
87. Cohen AS, Minor KS. Emotional experience in patients with schizophrenia revisited: meta-analysis of laboratory studies. Schizophr Bull 2010;36:143-50.
88. Llerena K, Strauss GP, Cohen AS. Looking at the other side of the coin: a meta-analysis of self-reported emotional arousal in people with schizophrenia.Schizophr Res 2012;142:65-70.
89. Barrett KC, Nelson-Goens GC. Emotion communication and the development of the social emotions. New Dir Child Dev 1997;77:69-88.
90. Robinson MD, Clore GL. Episodic and semantic knowledge in emotional self-report: evidence for two judgment processes. J PersSocPsychol 2002;83:198-215.
91. Kollias CT, Kontaxakis VP, Havaki-Kontaxaki BJ et al. Association of physical and social anhedonia with depression in the acute phase of schizophrenia. Psychopathology 2008;41:365-70.
92. Gard DE, Kring AM, Gard MG et al. Anhedonia in schizophrenia: distinctions between anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Schizophr Res 2007;93:253-60.
93. Mucci A, Dima D, Soricelli A et al. Is avolition in schizophrenia associated with a deficit of dorsal caudate activity? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study during reward anticipation and feedback.Psychol Med 2015;45:1765-78.
94. Barch DM, Dowd EC. Goal representations and motivational drive in schizophrenia: the role of prefrontal-striatal interactions. Schizophr Bull 2010;36:919-34.
95. Barch DM, Pagliaccio D, Luking K. Mechanisms underlying motivational deficits in psychopathology: similarities and differences in depression and schizophrenia. Curr Top BehavNeurosci 2016;27:411-49.
96. Strauss GP, Waltz JA, Gold JM.A review of reward processingand motivational impairment in schizophrenia.Schizophr Bull 2014;40(Suppl. 2):S107-16.
97. Strauss GP, Gold JM.A psychometric comparison of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale.Schizophr Bull 2016;42:1384-94.
98. Eckblad ML, Chapman LJ, Chapman JP et al. The Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1982.
99. Chapman LJ, Chapman JP, Raulin ML. Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia. J AbnormPsychol 1976;85:374-82.
100. Gard DE, Gard MG, Kring AM et al. Anticipatory and consummatory components of the experience of pleasure: a scale development study. J Res Pers 2006;40:1086-102.
101. Gooding DC, Johnson Pflum M. The assessment of interpersonal pleasure: introduction of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS) and preliminary findings. Psychiatry Res 2014;215:237-43.
102. Engel M, Fritzsche A, Lincoln TM. Validation of the German version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Psychiatry Res 2014;220:659-63.
103. Chan RC, Shi C, Lui SS et al. Validation of the Chinese version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): a preliminary report. Front Psychol 2015;6:7.
104. Strauss GP, Gold JM.A new perspective on anhedonia in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2012;169:364-73.
105. Buckner RL, Carroll DC.Self-projection and the brain. Trends CognSci 2007;11:49-57.
106. Schacter DL, Addis DR, Buckner R. Remembering the past to imagine the future: the prospective brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 2007;8:657-61.
107. Cannon M, Jones P, Gilvarry C et al. Premorbid social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: similarities and differences. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:1544-50.
108. Couture SM, Penn DL, Losh M et al. Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence. Psychol Med 2010;40:569-79.
109. K€ astner A, Begemann M, Michel TM et al. Autism beyond diagnostic categories: characterization of autistic phenotypes in schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2015;15:115.
110. Horan WP, Blanchard JJ. Emotional responses to psychosocial stress in schizophrenia: the role of individual differences in affective traits and coping. Schizophr Res 2003;60:271-83.
111. Liemburg E, Castelein S, Stewart R et al. Two subdomains of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders: established and confirmed in two large cohorts. J Psychiatr Res 2013;47:718-25.
112. Messinger JW, Tr? emeau F, Antonius D et al. Avolition and expressive deficits capture negative symptom phenomenology: implications for DSM-5 and schizophrenia research. ClinPsychol Rev 2011;31:161-8.
113. Kaiser S, Lyne J, Agartz I et al. Individual negative symptoms and domains – Relevance for assessment, pathomechanisms and treatment. Schizophr Res (in press).
114. Felice Reddy L, Green MF, Rizzo S et al. Behavioral approach and avoidance in schizophrenia: an evaluation of motivational profiles. Schizophr Res 2014;159:164-70.
115. Gallagher S, Varga S. Social cognition and psychopathology: a critical overview. World Psychiatry 2015;14:5-14.
116. Archer J, Hay DC, Young AW. Movement, face processing and schizophrenia: evidence of a differential deficit in expression analysis. Br J ClinPsychol 1994;33:517-28.
117. Corrigan PW, Addis IB. The effects of cognitive complexity on a social sequencing task in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1995;16:137-44.
118. Corrigan PW, Green MF. Schizophrenic patients’sensitivity to social cues: the role of abstraction. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:589-94.
119. Greig TC, Bryson GJ, Bell MD. Theory of mind performance in schizophrenia: diagnostic, symptom, and neuropsychological correlates. J NervMent Dis 2004;192:12-8.
120. Lin CH, Huang CL, Chang YC et al. Clinical symptoms, mainly negative symptoms, mediate the influence of neurocognition and social cognition on functional outcome of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2013;146:231-7.
121. Bora E, G€ okc¸en S, Kayahan B et al. Deficits of social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of theory of mind in remitted patients with schizophrenia: effect of residual symptoms. J NervMent Dis 2008;196:95-9.
122. Shean G, Meyer J. Symptoms of schizophrenia and social cognition. Psychiatry Res 2009;170:157-60.
123. Johnston PJ, Enticott PG, Mayes AK et al. Symptom correlates of static and dynamic facial affect processing in schizophrenia: evidence of a double dissociation? Schizophr Bull 2010;36:680-7.
124. Ventura J, Wood RC, Jimenez AM et al. Neurocognition and symptoms identify links between facial recognition and emotion processing in schizophrenia: meta-analytic findings. Schizophr Res 2013;151:78-84.
125. Bertrand MC, Sutton H, Achim AM et al. Social cognitive impairments in first episode psychosis. Schizophr Res 2007;95:124-33.
126. Mancuso F, Horan WP, Kern RS et al. Social cognition in psychosis: multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome. Schizophr Res 2011;125:143-51.
127. Rassovsky Y, Horan WP, Lee J et al. Pathways between early visual processing and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2011;41:487-97.
128. Piskulic D, Addington J. Social cognition and negative symptoms in psychosis. Psychiatry Res 2011;188:283-5.
129. Sergi MJ, Rassovsky Y, Widmark C et al. Social cognition in schizophrenia: relationships with neurocognition and negative symptoms. Schizophr Res 2007;90:316-24.
130. Millan MJ, Fone K, Steckler T et al. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: clinical characteristics, pathophysiological substrates, experimental models and prospects for improved treatment. EurNeuropsychopharmacol 2014; 24:645-92.
131. Beck AT, Grant PM, Huh GA et al. Dysfunctional attitudes and expectancies in deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2013;39:43-51.
132. Keri S, Kiss I, Kelemen O et al. Sharing secrets: oxytocin and trust in schizophrenia. SocNeurosci 2009;4:287-93.
133. Rubin LH, Carter CS, Drogos L et al. Peripheral oxytocin is associated with reduced symptom severity in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2010; 124:13-21.
134. Strauss GP, Keller WR, Koenig JI et al. Plasma oxytocin levels predict olfactory identification and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2015;162:57-61.
135. Harvey PD, Koren D, ReichenbergA et al. Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of their relationship? Schizophr Bull 2006; 32:250-8.
136. Nakagami E, Xie B, Hoe M et al. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects. Schizophr Res 2008;105:95-104.
137. Foussias G, Mann S, Zakzanis KK et al. Motivational deficits as the central link to functioning in schizophrenia: a pilot study. Schizophr Res 2009;115:333-7.
138. Foussias G, Remington G. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: avolition and Occam’s razor. Schizophr Bull 2010;36:359-69.
139. Tremeau F, Antonius D. Review: emotion identification deficits are associated with functional impairments in people with schizophrenia. Evid Based Ment Health 2012;15:106.
140. Insel T, Cuthbert B, Garvey M et al. Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:748-51.
141. Oorschot M, Lataster T, Thewissen V et al. Emotional experience in negative symptoms of schizophrenia – no evidence for a generalized hedonic deficit. Schizophr Bull 2013;39:217-25.
142. Myin-Germeys I, Delespaul PA, deVries MW. Schizophrenia patients are more emotionally active than is assumed based on their behavior. Schizophr Bull 2000;26:847-54.
143. Juckel G, Schlagenhauf F, Koslowski M et al. Dysfunction of ventral striatal reward prediction in schizophrenia. Neuroimage 2006;29:409-16.
144. Dowd EC, Barch DM. Anhedonia and emotional experience in schizophrenia: neural and behavioural indicators. Biol Psychiatry 2010;67:902-11.
145. Gold JM, Waltz JA, Prentice KJ et al. Reward processing in schizophrenia: a deficit in the representation of value. Schizophr Bull 2008;34:
146. Waltz JA, Frank MJ, Robinson BM et al. Selective reinforcement learning deficits in schizophrenia support predictions from computational models of striatal-cortical dysfunction. Biol Psychiatry 2007;62:756-64.
147. O’Doherty J. Multiple systems for the motivational control of behavior and associated neural substrates in humans. Curr Top BehavNeurosci 2016:291-312.
148. Reddy LF, Horan WP, Barch DM et al. Effort-based decision-making paradigms for clinical trials in schizophrenia: Part 1 – Psychometric characteristics of 5 paradigms. Schizophr Bull 2015;41:1045-54.
149. Strauss GP, Morra LF, Sullivan SK et al.The role of low cognitive effort and negative symptoms in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 2015;29:282-91.
150. Barch DM, Treadway MT, Schoen N. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment. J AbnormPsychol 2014;123:387-97.
151. Fervaha G, Graff-Guerrero A, Zakzanis KK et al. Incentive motivation deficits in schizophrenia reflect effort computation impairments during cost-benefit decision-making. J Psychiatr Res 2013;47:1590-6.
152. Gold JM, Strauss GP, Waltz et al. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with abnormal effort-cost computations. Biol Psychiatry 2013; 74:130-6.
153. Hartmann MN, Hager OM, Reimann AV et al. Apathy but not diminished expression in schizophrenia is associated with discounting of monetary rewards by physical effort. Schizophr Bull 2015;41:503-12.
154. Wolf K, Maß R, Lambert M et al. Expression, identification and experience of emotions in mental diseases. An overview.Nervenarzt 2014;85:326-8.
155. Prévost C, Pessiglione M, Météreau E et al. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs. J Neurosci 2010;30:14080-90.
156. Levy R, Dubois B. Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. Cereb Cortex 2006;16:916-28.
157. Faerden A, Friis S, Agartz I et al. Apathy and functioning in first-episode psychosis. PsychiatrServ 2009;60:1495-503.
158. Fervaha G, Foussias G, Agid O et al. Motivational and neurocognitive deficits are central to the prediction of longitudinal functional outcome in schizophrenia. ActaPsychiatrScand 2014;130:290-9.
159. Peralta V, Cuesta MJ. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a confirmatory factor analysis of competing models. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:1450-7.
160. Sayers SL, Curran PJ, Mueser KT. Factor structure and construct validity of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Psychol Assess 1996;8:269-89.
161. Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, McKenney PD et al. The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome: an instrument for research in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 1989;30:119-23.
162. Kimhy D, Yale S, Goetz RR et al. The factorial structure of the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome in schizophrenia.Schizophr Bull 2006;32:
163. Nakaya M, Ohmori K. A two-factor structure for the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2008;158:256-9.
164. Mucci A, Galderisi S, Merlotti E et al. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS): independent validation in a large sample of Italian patients with schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry 2015;30:641-7.
165. Strauss GP, Whearty KM, Morra LF et al. Avolition in schizophrenia is associated with reduced willingness to expend effort for reward on a Progressive Ratio task. Schizophr Res 2016;170:198-204.
166. Trémeau F, Goggin M, Antonius D et al. A new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale. Psychiatry Res 2008;160:346-55.
167. Emsley RA, Niehaus DJ, Mbanga NI et al. The factor structure for positive and negative symptoms in South African Xhosa patients with schizophrenia.Schizophr Res 2001;47:149-57.
168. Green MF, Hellemann G, Horan WP et al. From perception to functional outcome in schizophrenia: modeling the role of ability and motivation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012;69:1216-24.
169. Konstantakopoulos G, Ploumpidis D, Oulis P et al. Apathy, cognitive deficits and functional impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res2011;133:193-8.